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- [The (in)ability to mourn in East and West Germany. What mourning could mean].
Bigger villages also had watchtowers and galleries built on the insides of the palisades from which defenders could fire arrows at a besieging force. While superficially similar, Indian war chiefs and European military leaders of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries fulfilled dramatically different roles and had sharply divergent relationships with their soldiers.
European generals had autocratic powers and were able to issue orders to their troops backed by the threat of imprisonment or death. They also enjoyed direct control of their armies through an imprecise but nonetheless effective chain of command. War chiefs, in contrast, lost control of their warriors after their raiding parties entered enemy territory and broke up into smaller, independent groups.
More important, Indian military leaders lacked the authority to compel obedience and instead had to win popular approval for their campaigns. A war chief commissioned by a family to avenge a death, for example, had to recruit warriors and build support for the raid by distributing gifts and discussing strategy.
Bruce G. Seeking economic, dynastic, and religious objectives through the acquisition of territory, European princes of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries undertook military campaigns designed to crush enemy forces in decisive engagements.
Eastern Orthodox Funeral Traditions | Everplans
They consequently employed large armies centered on highly disciplined, massed infantry formations such as the potent Spanish tercio that were composed of pikemen and harquebusiers. Supported by smaller contingents of artillery and cavalry, these infantry regiments engaged in large, setpiece battles that resulted in staggering numbers of casualties. Because Europeans sought largely territorial goals, moreover, their wars often involved lengthy and well-organized sieges of fortifications and cities, such as those that occurred during the failed Spanish effort to crush the revolt of the Netherlands in the late sixteenth century.
Enemy Indians taken captive in mourning wars confronted several fates. Women and children who were a burden and enemy warriors perceived to be a threat were, on occasion, scalped and killed immediately. Upon arrival the captives were stripped, bound at the hands and feet, and forced to walk a gauntlet of tribe members who repeatedly struck them with clubs, torches, and knives.
In general, women, children, and skilled or especially attractive men were adopted into the family.
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These captives were given the name, title, and position of the person they replaced, and, over time, became integrated into their new family and became loyal to their new tribe. Their capture thus eased the pain of bereavement, maintained the size of family, clan, and tribe, and restored the spiritual strength that the community had lost through the death of a member.
Ritual Sacrifice. While women and children generally replaced dead family members, most captured warriors were condemned to die through ritual sacrifice. As with women and children, such prisoners were adopted into a family and took the name and title of a recently deceased clan member. After a brief period in which the family treated the prisoner with respect and affection, the clan gave the victim a final feast in anticipation of his death. The next day, the entire village assembled in the primary war chiefs longhouse and began torturing the captive in a lengthy, highly ritualized ceremony.
While mourning wars generally followed this pattern, there were important exceptions and qualifications. Because young men could gain the prestige needed to become influential and respected members of their tribe only through war, they frequently raided without village or tribal approval. Such attacks often upset delicate peace arrangements and, thereby, restarted recently concluded wars.
That system rested on reciprocal exchanges of obligations, gifts, and spiritual power wherein kinship groups and individuals bound themselves together. Unlike the noisy and smoky firearms used by contemporary Europeans, Indian weapons such as stone-headed axes, wooden clubs, and spears lent themselves well to ambushes and surprise attacks. Bows that fired stone-tipped arrows were likewise employed in such engagements, though they had only a short effective range and were of limited value in the thickly forested eastern part of the continent.
For protection, Indian warriors carried bark shields and wore crude wooden armor over their torsos and legs.
This protective covering could stop a stone-tipped arrow or deflect an ax blow and proved important in keeping casualties to a minimum during the large battles that occasionally took place outside besieged villages. Sources: Bruce G. Trigger, ed. Wilcomb E.
Washburn, ed. At the intertribal level, this meant that eastern Indians generally had peaceful, friendly relations with neighboring tribes with which they engaged in substantial reciprocal commerce, and hostile relations with tribes with which they did not trade.
Birkner found the emotional and psychological support resources for people in their early adult life-stage lacking. Birkner, a Brooklyn-based writer and editor. Wall said, adding that the feedback she got was all positive, which she attributes to the site. Soffer said.
[The (in)ability to mourn in East and West Germany. What mourning could mean].
The website also examines decidedly 21st century topics like what to do when Gmail keeps suggesting someone who has died as a contact, a topic that Esther D. And margaritas. Named after the company Lisa Frank, known for its brightly colored products that Ms.
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Feldman said are to her the antithesis of grief, the venture was inspired after her former girlfriend and Smith College classmate, Rebecca Rosenthal, known as Becca, died in October at age Those who are accustomed to social media as a way to tout how fabulous your life is, beware: these sites can be unflinchingly graphic and wrenching. In November, K. On Ms. Do you share? She promptly tells Hannah, using an expletive, to leave the reception; the protagonist seems to become more sensitive later in the season, when her grandmother dies. The show also highlighted how the Internet has made grief more public and casual, and therefore more fraught.
Last February, on what would have been Ms. Rosenthal had died. Feldman said. Birkner said she found support on Facebook on long-forgotten death anniversaries.
Facebook does offer an option to memorialize an account that prevents anyone from logging into it in the future, but allows friends and family, depending on privacy setting, to leave posts on the timeline.